Daily Archives: April 20, 2023

16 posts

Chairman’s Corner for April – May 2023

Hello Folks, I hope all are doing well and I hope all enjoyed this past Easter.  The weather lately has been in our favor, and it looks like it is going to continue, so just maybe we are out of the raining season.  Thanks to Dennis LaBerge and Scott Vance for helping Dennis with maintain the field, it sure looks great!  Please say Thanks to Dennis and Scott for doing a great job next time you see them!   I have notice that our Roto Plex field needs some TLC and I plan on going over there to clean it up and reset the course and make the field look a little better than it does.  I am looking for volunteers to help our in cleaning the Roto Plex field on May 7, 2023, that is a Sunday, it would be greatly appreciated if any of you could help. I would very much like to bring the Roto Plex field back to descent looking field.  I have notice that some people are flying at the Roto Plex, and they don’t have AMA or have joined our club.  I ask that if any of you see someone flying, PLEASE go over and confirm that they are members.  Just this past weekend, this one gentleman was flying his Helicopter no more than 20 feet for SeaWorld Drive.  That we all know is not acceptable.  If this guy were to crash his helicopter on the road, we can all say “Good-bye” to our field!  It is in your best interest to go over, make conversation in a polite way and asked if they are members, as well of telling them where too and not to fly!  If they have AMA, and show it to you, they may fly for the day, but tell them to join our club, which will give them full access to our field. It’s also not a bad idea to ask if they have TRUST and having FAA number on the quad or the helicopter, just inform them that the FAA could make a surprise visit. Speaking of TRUST and FAA numbers, I hope all members are up to date and have their FAA number on their aircraft.

It appears that some members (names will not be mentioned) who believe that they can fly above the 200 feet.  I guess I need to tell you that you cannot fly above 200 feet.  We clearly have that spelled out along the fence line at each gate.  This one individual told me that it was ok to Spike above the 200-foot mark.  Not sure where he is getting his information.  As of 2018 the rules changed on us and in those rules, they is no Spiking allowed.  His father kept insisting that it was league.  He of course did not want to argue with me and for good reason, he knows that I am correct and this induvial was not.  They only come out during the week and occasionally on a Saturday.  This gentleman has been told many times not to do this and he keeps insisting on doing it when he feels like doing it.    This could very much loose our field.  We can’t afford to have one bad apple sour our fun of flying airplanes.   I ask you, here as well if you see anyone going above the 200-foot, let them know that they are in violation of our rules and must descend. 

UCSD is coming back to our field for the second year now to preform “UCSD aircraft design fly-off”.  This is going to happen on June 16, 2023, with Professor John Hwang who will be a member of our club when this event is held, and they will be using the field from 8 am to 12 noon.  The field will be closed during those hours.  It will reopen to all members just as they conclude their event.  You are all welcome to watch the event and give a little advise to the 7 to 8 groups that will be there.  Steve Manganelli and Dennis Laberge will be the two main Pilots from our club that will provide the majority of the support, so Please coordinate with them on this event.  It was pretty cool last year, from what I had heard.  I also request if any of you can bring your camera with you to take some pictures of this event so we can post them in our Newsletter, I think that too would be cool.  If any of you have questions about this event, please reach out to me and I’d be happy to answer them.

Starting this coming Saturday, our Monthly Meeting, we are going start off the Raffle in which we will be Raffling off a New iX 14 Spektrum Radio along with other items included in this raffle. The reason for the Raffle is to generate more money for our Banquet on January 12, 2024.  Yes, we will back at the Air and Space Museum for our 3rd consecutive time.  Being underneath the PBY is one very cool experience.   We are working very hard to reduce the cost to our members for the Banquet and hoping this will bring more of our members to enjoy the festivities.  This Raffle will be a tremendous boost for the banquet, alone with Brad’s, 50/50 which we play at every T-28, Electrogilde and our monthly meetings.  And in each time, we play 50/50, I have seen many happy members walking away, thrumming thru the cash!  Last Saturday, Allen was the winner with just one ticket.  Way to go Allen.  The Raffle will begin on April 22, 2023, and goes all the way up to July 1, 2023.  4th of July is on a Tuesday this year and we will celebrate the 4th on Saturday July 1st.    Every Club Member may purchase a raffle ticket, each ticket will cost a Buck.  Yes, that is $1.00 to win an iX 14 radio.  Each member may purchase as many tickets as they choose too.  I know I’m going to get a bunch of tickets for iX 14 radio…. OMG.  You will be able to go to our web site www.SEFSD.org to purchase your tickets.   I will be selling tickets every Saturday down at the field, so make sure you get them!   As it now stands, we are generating a good chuck of cash for our banquet in which we will be able to reduce the cost to our members.  I do want to thank all of you for making this happen!

Up-date on the DC-3.  My new job has been amazing, and I truly enjoy building the real full-scale aircrafts, which has not given me the time to work on the DC-3.  I have started to build up the nacelles.  Once I get them completed, I would say that I about 75% done building.  Still, I have not decided on what the DC-3 will be, maybe PSA, or an earlier version of Hawaiian Airlines… 

Happy Flying!


President’s Corner for April – May 2023

Hey Flyers!

I for one, am glad that it seems to be drying out. The Red Lock, and Dennis has done a great job of damage control by keeping club members from using the field when it’s just too wet to use.  Dennis diligently repaired the footprints left by the homeless people and dog walkers…

On the mention of the red lock, there are currently 3 locks assigned to our site. The city’s KEYED lock, our primary combination lock ( silver ), and our restricted access combination lock ( Red).  Currently, the City has their lock out for repair. It’s quite old and needs to be able to allow access to city vehicles during emergencies. That leaves 2 locks attached at the moment. The red lock closes the chain around the gate, and the red lock closes the other end of the chain around the fence post.  There has been some confusion when people saw the red lock and assumed they were locked in without looking closer.

The field is in full bloom of wild flowers with some areas above head height. There are quite a few people parking in our lot, and walking across the runway and roto plex to take pictures with the pretty “weeds”.  Contrary to some beliefs, we share the outer field areas with the general population using Mission Bay Park. PLEASE don’t holler at them or threaten them in any way with your aircraft. If they are in the way when you are trying to take off, hold your flight for a few minutes until they clear out. If they are actually on the runway when someone is trying to land, ask them to clear the runway ( No Cursing). Any time there are people in the field, we must stay at least 50 feet above them, and the Multi-rotors must give them a minimum of 100 feet horizontal space. Dive bombing or racing your drone near any person or animal equals an immediate suspension of membership for the remainder of the year – or longer if the BOD determines it is warranted.

I KNOW Jovi talked about it, but I’m going to make this bold and in larger text as some people are not getting it.  We have no waiver for people practicing the I/EMAC pattern to punch way over 200 feet!!!  Our hard ceiling is 200 feet. SEFSD is currently in an area that is designated with a 50 foot flight ceiling, and we have a specific agreement with the FAA and ATC US Western Division that allows us to reach 200 feet.

Jovi also mentioned that he is going to pull together a group of plane flyers to clean up the roto plex areas on the 7th of May. Thank you to those who volunteer. I appreciate your help. I will say that if the roto plex guys are not interested in helping – the next time the city says it looks trashy will be the end of the race gates and it will only be maintained as a helicopter area moving forward.

Recently there has been a lot of discussions about a couple of the hobby distributers have quietly raised their prices by 2-400 dollars and are shouting “FREE Shipping!!” Don’t be fooled, understand where your dollars are going. Often your best bet is to order from our local hobby shop.

So Far we have reached over $1100.00 in the 50/50 donation pot for next years banquet. The goal is $2500.00 which will offset the dinner prices for every attendee by $25.00. Any additional collections will go towards additional raffle prizes. I will say that one member has already donated a very popular plane to the 50/50 raffle to support the club and our Banquet!!

The Monthly Meeting is this Saturday, 22 April. There will also be a Fun Fly event and a hot dog lunch. HOPE to see you all there!!


Poker Fly

 This Saturday, 4/22/2023 is our POKER FLY!! 
We will be trying a NEW scoring method,
so look forward to something to make it easier!
Poker hands start building at 10:00am and lasts through the hour.
You get 3 cards dealt to you. For each flight, you get another card dealt to you. 
 You want to build the best 5 card hand you can with 4 available additional cards.
Club meeting and BBQ lunch to follow.
The Best Poker Hands and Bluffs from Movies - Borgata Online

SEFSD Helps SDSU Aztec Aerodesign Ace Design Build Fly Competition

By Steve Manganelli

Wow, what a ride! 5th place after the first 2 days of competition, then down to 8th near the end of the last day, then up to 6th with a risky proof load and settling out at a respectable 11th out of 99 teams competing. The organizers stated that with over 800 undergraduate Engineering students participating, this was the largest Design-Build-Fly competition ever! San Diego State University Aztec Aerodesign club under the leadership of Henry (Clay) Logsdon made all their practice flights at SEFSD’s Mission Bay Park Field in the days, weeks and months preceding the April Fly off. SEFSD Safety Officer Steve Neu is their pilot and I am their Staff Volunteer Faculty Advisor.

Design Build Fly (DBF), started in 1996 as an American Institution of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) sanctioned annual competition for undergraduate Aerospace Engineering college student teams. The basic challenge is to design, then build, then fly an electric powered R/C model optimized for specific cargo missions that change every year. The course has always been the same 1000 ft oval with an opposite direction turn on the downwind leg. Myself and Steve Neu’s first involvement was in 1999 when UCSD student Andrew Mye came to an SEFSD evening members meeting and requested help/expertise in the somewhat novel at the time, discipline of electric powered R/C modeling. Andrew and his team of (4) placed 6th at our first try at the event with about 30 teams participating; Steve Neu and I subsequently guided UCSD to (4) additional top 10 finishes and the win in 2002. UCSD changed to a faculty guided methodology and Steve Neu and I migrated to SDSU in 2019. The event has gotten more and more prestigious over the years and international with at least (18) schools from abroad competing in this year’s competition.

DBF entry begins with submittal of a 5 page proposal of how a team intends to meet the mission requirements. This year, (135) proposals were submitted and the best 110 were invited to participate in the competition. Ninety nine submitted the required 60 page Report detailing their analysis and methodology leading to their final design making them eligible to compete in the flyoff April 13th through 17th.  The flyoff location alternates between Tucson with Raytheon as the primary sponsor and Wichita KS with Cessna as the primary sponsor. This year’s fly off was held at the TIMPA R/C airfield in Tucson AZ. Our Aztecs’ proposal and report were ranked 25th and 29th respectively so starting in November, 2022 the adventure began.

The proposal passing muster triggered the actual aircraft design effort based on mission optimization and the scoring formula. Three of the (4) missions used normalized scoring where the school performing best at each mission gets a factor of 1 and everyone else gets a fraction of that number based on their score relative to the winner’s. It’s a bit nerve wracking as every time a new best is posted, all the existing scores go down; the written report score is a multiplier for every mission. The most intriguing mission this year was a static proofload of the center of the fuselage supported by the wing tips. This is not representative of an actual flight loading condition where the load occurs more or less uniformly along the wingspan. Simply supporting the aircraft by the wing tips is approximately a 2.5G flight load. Imagine then, what adding 150 lbs to the center of the fuselage while supported by the wing tips might be? That’s what our Aztecs did and still only garnered a 0.47 because the German team carried….wait for it, 750 lbs! I didn’t see how a single German student wrestled the 750 lbs of 12 X 12 concrete pavers in around 5 minutes but our clever Aztecs used an automotive floor jack to lift their exercise weights into position.

The German team from RWTH Aachen University built a wing with anhedral and their loading fixture kind of “post-tensioned” it as it was loaded allowing it to carry more weight not unlike a masonry arched bridge where the loading components are in compression.

The next most interesting aspect of the mission is each one had to start from the aircraft in an airline baggage legal size container and be assembled ready for flight by one Student in less than 5 minutes or less than 10 minutes when the static proofload was part of the Mission. Our creative Aztecs designed a pod and square boom fuselage where the boom retracted into the fuselage up to the firewall and then locked when deployed with a typical canopy latch. Wires to the elevator and rudder servos stayed connected to the RX during all conditions. The next obstacle set forth by the organizers is the requirement to have 2 interchangeable sets of wings. Two coin flips just before your turn to fly selected the left and right panel from the set of (2) which both had to fit into that same airline size box. Master assembler of our team Max Dommers, calmly withdrew the 4 wings from the box and set them aside, then pulled out the fuselage and extended the tail boom. The MLG was attached with (2) thumb screws and then the fuselage set on it’s wheels. Next the wing joiner was installed into the appropriate wing and then slid into the fuselage, the other wing was next slid on and the two held inboard with a rubber band. The aileron wires were next connected and the motor battery was installed. Lastly, the prop adapter and prop were installed. Max had this down to about 3 minutes which was necessary as the other normalized missions added installation of a payload to the 5 minutes!

The intermediate payload was a weight having dimensions at least 3” X 3” X 6”, amount of the teams choosing however the mission score depended on the product of the payload weight and the number of laps that could be flown around the course in 10 minutes. Steve Neu expertly piloted “Huitzilopochtli” (Aztec Left Hummingbird God) (12) laps around  the course in the allotted time and put a nice score on the board for us.

The final heinous mission was to carry a simulated jamming antenna in the form of ½ inch schedule 40 PVC pipe, the length of the teams choosing as long as it fit into the box. Oh yeah, it had to be carried on the wing tip toward the inboard side of the course! The teams were allowed a counter weight on the opposite wing tip but not a “counter drag” the pilot simply had to deal with it. Both pipe and counter weight had to be installed within the 5 minutes. Max expertly put it together in under 5 minutes and Steve Neu expertly piloted Huitzilopochtli around the course for 3 laps in about 2 minutes carrying a 24” inch (pipe) antenna.

At the end of the flight, he pronounced the aircraft too tail heavy and pitch unstable to risk more points with a larger length pipe and the decision was made to save the plane for the proof load mission. Our first successful proof load of 85 #s kept us in 8th place but Max calculated that 150 (which is more than we’d ever tried) would put us up to 6th place! The go-for-broke (literally) load was successful and we moved up. All we had to do was wait out the teams yet to fly after us and hope none of them did anything better than us. Of course those immediately below us tried to do the same thing and (3) teams overtook us. Embry-Riddle-Prescott whom was missing a mission score late in the contest zoomed up to 7th from 25th once they completed their pipe/antenna flight. The clock timed out and we happily took our well deserved 11th place finish. Congratulations to 1st Place RWTH University Aachen (Germany), 2nd Place University of Ljubljani (Slovenia) and 3rd place Embry Riddle Daytona Beach Campus. For detailed results and more information, go here : AIAA Design/Build/Fly | AIAA .   All in all a cherished opportunity for SEFSD to support our future Aerospace Engineers.

Click here for the full album of pictures.

The Gallaudet Seaplane Project, Pt. 1


By Allan Flowers

This project started almost a year ago on a Google Image search when I discovered a very strange and interesting airplane. Having been thinking of starting a new project, I was intrigued by this odd challenge.

The Gallaudet was powered by a mid fuselage propeller driven by a ring gear – by no less than twin Duesenberg engines. The first version of this design, the D-1, actually flew in 1916 and was a proposal for the US Navy, which subsequently commissioned the Gallaudet Company (Connecticut) to build two more, the D-4s. One later crashed when the propeller failed, killing the test pilot. The other flew for several years, ending its life as a Schneider Cup racing plane. These were quite large planes, with wingspans of about 48 feet.

My first design was to be 1/6th scale at 96” WS. Along with the issue of the unusual drive mechanism, the ability of the single main float to provide sufficient buoyancy for a 20lb model was a concern. My CAD program has a mass properties function but it wouldn’t give me consistent answers so I solicited some help from fellow modelers on RCSB where I had started a “build thread”. Based on their calculations, combined with measurements of my Scion (which had to be used to transport this thing), I decided to consider a different scale. Around this time, a gentlemen who had seen the build thread, sent me some info from WW-1 Aero Magazine, which showed a drawing of a smaller Gallaudet proposal for a “hydro scout” (also from 2016). It had a 28 ft WS and larger a tail-fin and ailerons. This plane could be made in quarter scale with a larger float but smaller wingspan than the D-1.

The United States was soon involved in WW-1 and lost interest in the hydro scout programs. Thus the Scout was never made but the drawing had enough detail to interest me in a build.

The early CAD designs established the parameters of the drive mechanism and enabled a search for components, mostly from McMasters-Carr – which provides CAD models to download and pop into my system. The main parts were the roller bearing and sleeve which could be slid over an aluminum tube which would join the front and rear fuselage sections. Also important were some thrust bearings and seals to complete the drive.

Next was finding sprockets and belts to power the thing, and a suitable electic motor of small enough diameter to fit in under the main aluminum tube. That boiled down primarily to a few Hackers and Neumotors. The final choice was a Neumotor driving 13 and 44 tooth sprockets through a 15mm belt. Because of the gear ratio, a high KV motor was a necessity. E-calc was very helpful in researching the motors, ESCs and propellers. The later was a big challenge because there are no multiblade props that would work with the unusual hub design.

May Club Event Recap: Altitude Quest

We got back into the event groove in May,  with April being rained out.    Our “Altitude Quest” game was easy enough for everyone to play,  and the spinner, as well as the altitude meter worked great for everyone.  It always makes me happy when club members play our games for the first time.  

This month we had Joe Rosevear join in his first club contest with an absolutely awesome CLASSIC Dynaflite Wanderer with a power pod.   This charmer of an airplane took its sweet time to get to altitude,  but the whole time everyone was having flashbacks of their early years with home-built balsa kits, and reliving those early days.  I think more than 12 people raised their hands when I asked, “Who here has had/built/flown a Wanderer?”  The Wanderer was first produced in 1975 by Marks Models.   Joe’s score didn’t put him on the podium,  but he did have a great time joining in on our shenanigans.  

Also joining in on the game, Vlad Robin who also is not a usual monthly game participant,  we are happy to see you joining in! I don’t want to forget mentioning Brian Glensky,  who is pretty new to all of our games, he did better than the average score!    
Congrats to the winners,  THANK YOU to all the participants.  Without you playing these games,   they go away.  Your continual participation in the monthly event,  then the monthly meeting,  is what helps truly keep the camaraderie high and the information flowing.

The Results:

Place      Name                   Score
5th        Mary Riney           +9ft
4th        Scott Vance          +5ft
3rd        George Harper     -3ft
2nd       Bruce Driver         -4ft
1st        Steve Manganelli   BULLSEYE @ 199 ft. !

Also,  thanks to Steve Manganelli who has stepped up to handle the monthly contest certificates for the rest of the year.  All of our volunteers have real lives, and sometimes extra errands are just too hard to get done, or even forgotten. Thanks Steve!

Lastly, please remember to THANK the people who are working hard to keep SEFSD functioning, eventful,  fun, and one of the best AMA sites in the USA.   It’s not always easy, it’s not always fun. It’s often demanding of time,  but our volunteers are always, awesome.  Thanks.
NEXT UP….  For April,  POKER FLY! See you on Saturday 4/28/23 10:00am
Your Event Meister –   Jim

T28 Racing Report for April 2023

We had a great turnout for the April 8th edition of our T28 racing series with 13 pilots in attendance. The weather was near perfect with clear blue sky and calm winds. 

The preliminary rounds had lots of very close racing with the placings often being determined by who made the fewest errors. In one case Otto was attempting to catch me by flying very low—I was at maybe 5 feet above the ground  heading west and he was at 3—but the daisies were at 4 feet resulting in Otto having a unplanned layover in the flowers for his plane—which was undamaged and able to fly the rest of the event!

The finals results were as follows:


1) Otto
2) Fredrick
3) Quan
4) Artie
5) George


1) SteveM
2) Mark
3) Brian
4) Fritz


1) SteveN
2) Brad
3) Alex
4) Daric

Our May race date is May 13th at 10am. All planes should have their assigned number on the top and bottom to help the turn judges in identifying the planes. Also I would like to thank Jovi for being being the race day marshal and also to Carl and Dennis as our turn judges. 

If you break the stock 3 blade T28 it can be replaced with a 7x6E 2 blade APC prop. I made up a batch of CNC aluminum adapters that make it easy to install. The APC works just as well as the stock for 1/3 the cost and it is much stronger and less likely to break in the first place.

See you at the next race—

Steve Neu

Electroglide Report for April 2023

This month’s Electroglide could be renamed, “Smash and Crash Day”. We had several off-field or hard landings, plus a dramatic mid-air collision. The North West winds would prove to be problematic throughout the contest.

Eight pilots were on hand at the first launch and after fixing a glitch with the speaker system, we got under way. With the mentioned winds, six Radians and two open class gliders took a steep, quick climb to altitude.

Dennis La Berge and Scott Vance, both flying Radians, battled for the longest flight. Scott came back to the runway at 4:36 minutes and Dennis at 4:30 minutes. Bob Anson, flying a Radian, was third at 2:45 minutes. Lewis Dotson, flying in the open class, was the only pilot to score bonus landing points (10-points), as well as earning the first down “Lucky Dog” award, giving him a respectable 34 points.

Second launch again had similar flight times with wind lift being the only lift available. Dennis had the long flight this time at 4:39. Both Scott and Stephen Treger, (Radian), came back at 4:31; Scott with a 20-point landing and Stephen picking up a 10-point landing. Bob came in third at 3:42. Lewis again earned the Lucky Dog award and a 10-point landing.

Third launch was I think where the mid-air happened. This involved two Radians with one having its tail boom completely severed. This resulted in the damaged aircraft doing an inverted “death spiral” towards the runway and pit area. We on the ground could only watch this happen and move out of the way if needed. I lost sight of my aircraft momentarily and I’m sure other pilots did too!

Bob had the long flight at 3:52 plus the only 30-point landing for the morning. Dennis came in second at 3:30 and Stephen was third at 3:06. Neil Zhu, flying open class, got the Lucky Dog and a 20-point landing.

Fourth and final launch had better flight times. Scott had the long one at 5:19 minutes. Dennis was second at 4:50 with a 20-point landing and Neil Zhu came in third at 4:35, also with a 20-point landing.

Top place scores for the day:

Radian Class-

1st. place,     Dennis LaBerge         125 total points
2nd. Place,    Scott Vance                108 total points
3rd. Place,     Bob Anson                 104 total points

Open Class-

1st. Place      Neil Zhu                       127 total points
2nd. Place     Lewis Dotson                62 total points

It was a challenging day for all pilots and their aircraft, two gliders had to drop out due to damage and there were a few off field landings as well.

Congrats to the pilots scoring extra landing points. With the wind, it was a hard thing to do Saturday.

Thanks to Spring Zhu for the event pictures.

Next Electroglide will be on May 20th.

See you there,

Jeff Struthers

BOD Meeting Minutes for April 2023


SEFSD Board of Directors Meeting Minutes

Quorum at 6:37 PM, meeting convened.

In-person participants: Steve N., Brad, Jovi, Steve M., Quan, Eric, Carl, Nick
Online participants: N/A
Not present: Steve B.

Meeting held Steve N.’s home.


Brad: Blankets purchased for donation are being held for the annual donation to St. Paul’s Pace as done in the past.
Efforts are being made to repaint the benches.

Jovi: Picked up two Spektrum iX14 Transmitters for raffle and club banquet.
Raffle details being finalized.
A professor from UCSD is scheduling field use on June 16 from 10 AM and 12 PM.
Volunteers sought to help spruce up Rotorplex.

Steve N.: Nothing new.

Steve M.: Bank account remains adequately funded.
Membership at 264 currently.
Will be purchasing prize certificates for future events.
CA-119 form submitted on behalf of the club.

Steve B.: Not in attendance.

Larry K.: Gold Leader Club status is being updated and followed up upon.

Nick: Nothing new.

Eric: Weed Wacker lists our T-28 races as starting by 8 AM on the given Saturday. This may be hindering participation because “8 AM”. We should contact them to update starting time to 10 AM.

Carl: Nothing new.

Quan: We’re on list for FRIA recognition. (FAA-Recognized Identification Areas)


The UCSD Engineering Department has asked to use the field for their Aircraft Design Flyoff. A vote was taken and the “ayes” prevailed


Field condition remains good, though unlikely lately, but please stay off the field when it’s rain soaked.
Park Master Plan to continue being addressed. We are discussing how best to preserve this site into the future.
Droneplex maintenance to spruce up area remains forefront of mind.


T28 racing at 10:00 AM Saturday 5/8/23 (weather forecast looks good).
Electroglide at 10:00 AM Saturday 5/15/2023 (weather forecast looks good).
Poker Fly at 10:00 AM Saturday 5/22/2023 (weather forecast looks good).

UCSD Engineering Dept. will be using field on June 16th.

Organized field events will now include 50/50 raffles to help fund club banquets and other events. The organized events include Electroglide, T-28 racing, Bomb Drop, Don’t Spill the Beans, etc.

Next BOD meeting 5/10/2023 @ 6:30 PM.

Meeting adjourned at 8:01 PM.

Eric Shapiro
SEFSD Secretary 2023